Historic Redlining

The average Black and Hispanic or Latino households earn about half as much as the average White household and own only about 15 to 20 percent as much net wealth.


Historical Redlining


Historical Redlining Is Associated with Present-Day Air Pollution Disparities in U.S. Cities

Haley M. Lane, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Julian D. Marshall, and Joshua S. Apte, (2022)

Communities of color in the United States are systematically exposed to higher levels of air pollution.

Persistence of Prejudice

Krimmel, Jacob, (2020)

These findings suggest redlining impacted neighborhood housing supply and population independent of pre-war patterns of racial segregation.

The Effects of Historical Housing Policies on Resident Exposure to Intra-Urban Heat

Hoffman, Jeremy S., Vivek Shandas, and Nicholas Pendleton, (2020)

This study reveals that historical housing policies may, in fact, be directly responsible for disproportionate exposure to current heat events.

How Race, Place, and Class Impact Economic Mobility

Hoffman, Jeremy S., Vivek Shandas, and Nicholas Pendleton, (2020)

Race disparities are stark: Black children of families qualifying for programs like SNAP and Medicaid earn $9,000 less than White children by the age 35. But neighborhood disparities exist, as well. Children earn more as adults when their neighborhood has more families with above average incomes, even when their own parents’ income is below average. Children of segregated neighborhoods also earn less as adults.
Scroll to top